Cam01

Content

Systematics

This well-supported clade comprises two out of three species of the Madeiran endemic Musschia (Menezes & al. 2007), and four of Campanula, namely C. axillaris, C. lactiflora, C. peregrina, and C. primulifolia. This so-called "Musschia clade" was early depicted by Eddie & al. (2003), and includes here one additional species endemic to Turkey (C. axillaris). Our petD data strongly favor sister relationships between C. axillaris and C. peregrina on the one hand, and between C. primulifolia and Musschia, on the other. The latter relationship is congruent with the trnLF signal (Roquet & al. 2008), and depict interesting geographical links between the eastern and western Euro-Mediterranean area. Dating analyses further suggest that the estimated time of divergence between C. primulifolia and Musschia (c. 9 Ma [2.82–11.82]) overlaps with the time span of the volcanic island archipelago emergence, starting c. 15 Ma (Fernandez-Palacios & al. 2011), and possibly favors a neoendemic origin for Musschia (Mansion & al. 2009). Interestingly, despite the acquisition of striking new vegetative and floral features in the insular neoendemic (Bramwell 1972), the single dispersal of Musschia common ancestor was not followed by episodes of intensive diversification, as often observed in volcanic islands (Carine 2005). Alternatively, potential episodes of extinctions could have erased an early occurring radiation in Musschia.

From a taxonomic point of view, our data do not support the inclusion of both C. peregrina and C. primulifolia in Echinocodonia, as suggested by Kolakovskii (1994). Furthermore, karylogical evidence also contradicts such a combination, with C. peregrina having n= 13 and C. primulifolia, n= 18. Overall, the great morphological and cytological diversity (C. lactiflora: n =17, 18; Musschia aurea: n= 16) found in this geographically widespread clade, with overall rather low diversification on oceanic islands, could suggest active episodes of extinction during the last ten million years. More detailed analyses, using likelihood-based biogeographic methods (Ree & Smith 2008) and lineage through time inference should be performed to test such hypotheses.

From: Mansion & al. (2012: 11)

References


Bramwell D. 1972: Endemism in the flora of the Canary Islands – Pp. 141–159 in: Valentine D.H., (ed.), Taxonomy, phytogeography and evolution. – London: Academic Press.

Carine M.A. 2005: Spatio-temporal relationships of the Macaronesian endemic flora: a relictual series or window of opportunity? – Taxon 54: 895–903
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Eddie W.M.M., Shulkina T., Gaskin J., Haberle R.C. & Jansen R.K. 2003: Phylogeny of Campanulaceae s. str. inferred from its sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. – Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 90: 554–575.

Fernandez-Palacios J.M., de Nascimento L., Otto R., Delgado J.D., Garcia-del-Rey E. & al. 2011: A reconstruction of Palaeo-Macaronesia, with particular reference to the long-term biogeography of the Atlantic island laurel forests. – J. Biogeogr. 38: 226–246.

Kolakovskii AA. 1994: The conspectus of the system of the Old World Campanulaceae. – Bot. Z. 79: 109–124.

Mansion G., Selvi F., Guggisberg A. & Conti E. 2009: Origin of Mediterranean insular endemics in the Boraginales: integrative evidence from molecular dating and ancestral area reconstruction. – J. Biogeogr. 36: 1282–1296.

Mansion G., Parolly G., Crowl A.A., Mavrodiev E., Cellinese N., Oanesian M., Fraunhofer K., Kamari G., Phitos D., Haberle R., Akaydin G., Ikinci N., Raus T. & Borsch T. 2012: How to Handle Speciose Clades? Mass Taxon-Sampling as a Strategy towards Illuminating the Natural History of Campanula (Campanuloideae). – PLoS ONE 7 (11).

Menezes de Sequeira M., Jardim R., Silva M. & Carvalho L. 2007: Musschia isambertoi M. Seq., R. Jardim, M. Silva & L. Carvalho (Campanulaceae), a new species from the Madeira Archipelago (Portugal). – An. Jard. Bot. Madr. 64: 135–146.

Ree R.H. & Smith S.A. 2008: Maximum likelihood inference of geographic range evolution by dispersal, local extinction, and cladogenesis. – Syst. Biol. 57: 4–14.

Roquet C., Saez L., Aldasoro JJ., Susanna A., Alarcon ML. & al. 2008: Natural delineation, molecular phylogeny and floral evolution in Campanula. – Syst. Bot. 33: 203–217.

Synonymy

Cam01