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This low-supported clade, found here for the first time, contains two annual species, namely C.
, ranging from Mediterranean Africa to Caucasus, and C. flaccidula from Middle-East, and the perennial C. cymbalaria, occurring in Greece (Chios island), Lebanon, and Turkey (Snogerup & al. 2001). Campanula fastigiata was also described under either Brachycodon or Brachycodonia (Federov 1957) to reflect potential morphological transition between i>Campanula and Legousia, an assumption not reflected by the present gene tree. In fact, C. fastigiata is inferred to be sister to a more eastern Mediterranean lineage, suggesting some potential W to E evolutionary patterns. The disparity in chromosome numbers found in the extant species, with 2 n = 18 (C. fastigiata), 28 (C. flaccidula), and 34 (C. cymbalaria), along with the presence of long phylogenetic branches sustaining the current clades, and the rather ancient age inferred for the whole lineage (32.52 Ma (Edgar 2004, Eddie & al. 2003, Müller 2004, 2005, Rambaut 2008, Swofford 2002), would also support strong variation in respective rates of speciation/extinction in that clade, a hypothesis that needs to be further tested. High levels of extinction could potentially explain the current disjunct distribution of C. fastigiata in both western and eastern Mediterranean regions. Finally, the present clade also supports a new switch from the annual to perennial condition, a rather common episode in Campanula evolution (Contandriopolous 1984) the potential causes of which would deserve
more investigations.

From: Mansion & al. (2012: 13)


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Eddie W.M.M., Shulkina T., Gaskin J., Haberle R.C. & Jansen R.K. 2003: Phylogeny of Campanulaceae s. str. inferred from its sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. – Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 90: 554–575

Edgar R.C. 2004: MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. – Nucl. Acids Res. 32: 1792–1797.

Federov A.A. 1957: Campanulaceae. – Pp. 92–321 in: Shishkin B.K., (ed.), Flora of the SSSR. – – Moskow: Akademii Nauk SSSR.

Mansion G., Parolly G., Crowl A.A., Mavrodiev E., Cellinese N., Oanesian M., Fraunhofer K., Kamari G., Phitos D., Haberle R., Akaydin G., Ikinci N., Raus T. & Borsch T. 2012: How to Handle Speciose Clades? Mass Taxon-Sampling as a Strategy towards Illuminating the Natural History of Campanula (Campanuloideae). – PLoS ONE 7 (11).

Müller K. 2004: PRAP-computation of Bremer support for large data sets. – Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 31: 780–782.

Müller K. 2005: SeqState - primer design and sequence statistics for phylogenetic DNA data sets. – Appl. Bioinformatics 4: 65–69.

Rambaut A. 2008: FigTree v1.1.1: Tree figure drawing tool. Available: Accessed 20 October 2010.

Snogerup S., Snogerup B., Phitos D. & Kamari G. 2001: The flora of Chios island (Greece). – Chron. Bot. 14: 5–199.

Swofford D.L. 2002: PAUP* Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and other methods) Version 4. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates.