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Moderately supported, this clade contains a mixture of species assigned to either the “isophylloid” group, e.g. C. morettiana, C. pyramidalis, C. tommasiniana, C. versicolor, and C. waldsteiniana, or to the “rapunculoid” group, e.g. C. carpatica, C. pulla, C. raineri, and C. serrata. The isophylloid group encompasses morphologically intermediate taxa that either resembles members of section Heterophylla or section Isophylla, with occurrence of lateral and sterile shoots, heterogeneous leaf-blades (Heterophylla), mostly rotate corollas, and erect capsules (Isophylla) (Damboldt, 1965 a,b).

The current petD inference depicts a clade somewhat congruent in topology with the ITS reconstruction of Park et al. (2006). A first diverging and strongly supported C. morettiana–C. raineri group indicates important genetic affinities between otherwise morphologically distinct species. Relationships between C. waldsteiniana and C. tommasiniana, early suggested by Damboldt (1965b), and supported by Park & al. (2006), do not find support in the petD-based phylogeny. Finally, C. carpatica appears to be polyphyletic, and does not form a clade with C. pulla, as weakly suggested by the aforementioned ITS reconstruction. Overall, despite similar chromosome numbers based on an x = 17 series, the morphological and phylogenetic circumscription of Cam11 still remains moderate, advocating for more detailed studies aimed at inferring potential synapormorphies for the respective isophylloid and rapunculoid groups.

From: Mansion & al. (2012: 17)


Damboldt J. 1965a: Zytotaxonomische Revision der isophyllen Campanulae in Europa. – Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 84: 302–358.

Damboldt J. 1965b: Campanula tommasiana Koch und C. waldsteiniana R. et S.: Zur Zytotaxonomie zweier mediterraner Reliktsippen. – Oesterr. Bot. Z. 112: 392–406

Mansion G., Parolly G., Crowl A.A., Mavrodiev E., Cellinese N., Oanesian M., Fraunhofer K., Kamari G., Phitos D., Haberle R., Akaydin G., Ikinci N., Raus T. & Borsch T. 2012: How to Handle Speciose Clades? Mass Taxon-Sampling as a Strategy towards Illuminating the Natural History of Campanula (Campanuloideae). – PLoS ONE 7 (11).

Park J.M., Kovacic S., Liber Z., Eddie W.M.M. & Schneeweiss G.M. 2006: Phylogeny and biogeography of isophyllous species of Campanula (Campanulaceae) in the Mediterranean area. – Syst. Bot. 31: 862–880.